Rain, rivers, lakes, ponds are important source of water in India.
India receives 2nd highest rainfall for a country of its size. 1st is Brazil.
Water availability is 2000 cum/person/year and by 2050 it will be 3500 cum/person/year but availability shall be 1200 cum/person/year.
Rivers are also important water source. The Himalayan and peninsular rivers are the two types of rivers.
Not flood prone
Large, huge flood plain, low slope and forms meander.
No shifting of course – due to hard rock surface, no shifting of course, small catchment area.
Waterfalls at any course
Can be diverted for irrigation
Can’t be diverted for irrigation without pumps as river basin located on higher plateau
Waterfalls at youthful stage only
Waterfalls at any stage
TABLE 1: HIMALAYAN AND PENINSULAR RIVER
Aquifer is the storage pool for groundwater. It stores rainwater that percolates through the soil or cracks. When all pores are filled it’s called saturation zone. Upper layer of the saturation zone is called water table.
Fig 1: Groundwater resources
Groundwater capacity of India is 30-40 million hectares. It is found in selected locations only:
Ganga rivers groundwater reserve is highest at 17 million hectares. Indus river has a ground water usage rate of 80%.
India’s groundwater use is more than the replenishment rate and so aquifers are drying up. 60% of India’s irrigation through tube wells and dug wells. This hurts the water resources. Also unplanned urbanization, increasing population, overuse affect it.
Flouride, arsenic, nitrate fertilizers are affecting underground water resources.
Fig 2: Hydrological map of India
Geo hydrological unit that drains at a common point. E.g: A main river and its catchment area.
Fig 3: Watershed
In watershed management we construct small check dams to stop flow of water so it can percolate. No large dams and no stopping of the river flow.
Afforestation on river banks, soil conservation are other methods.
Drought-prone area Program + Desert development program + integrated wasteland development program = Integrated watershed Management Program under the department of land resources, ministry of rural development.
Watershed management can work successfully under community participation, decentralization and strong Panchayati Raj system.
|Bhimtal||Situated near the town of Bhimtal in Kumaun Divison of Uttarakhand, it is a fascinating lake with an island in the centre.|
|Chilka Lake||It is the largest coastal lake in India. The lake was formed due to the silting action of the Mahanadi River which drains into the northern end of the lake.|
|Dal Lake||Dal is a famous lake in Srinagar.|
|Kaliveli Lake||The lake is one of the largest wetlands in the peninsular India.|
|Kolleru Lake||The lake was an important habitat for an estimated migratory birds such as Grey or Spot-billed pelicans. Rich in flora and fauna, it attracts birds from Siberia and eastern Europe between the months of October and March.|
|Loktak Lake||It is also called the only ‘Floating Islands Lake’ in the world due to the floating Phundis (floating islands) on it.|
|Sambhar Lake||It is the largest salt lake of India.|
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Q1:The country that receives highest rainfall with respect to size is
Q2:Ease of navigability is seen in
Q3: Which minerals are affecting underground water resources.
Q4:Geo hydrological unit that drains at a common point is called a
Q5:Integrated watershed Management Program is under Ministry of