Chapter 14: VOLUME II


Atomic energy and Railway operations are the two sectors reserved for public sector. Apart from these compulsory licensing norms are present for few other sectors like electronics of aerospace, defence equipment, hazardous chemicals, alcohol and tobacco products and substitutes.

Any industry not listed above needs to file an Industry Entrepreneurs Memorandum with the Dept of Industrial policy and promotion no license are needed for such industries.

National Manufacturing Policy
Enhancing share of manufacturing to 25% of GDP and generate 100 million jobs in the field of manufacturing.
Skill based training to workers making them employable
Easing compliance norms for industries. Simplify procedures.
National Investment and Manufacturing zones to be setup.
NIMZ shall be conceived as large industry townships with state of the art infrastructure, land use based on zoning, governance structure, fiscal incentives, exit policy, skill training centers and clean, energy efficient technology.

Make in India

PM Modi announced the Make in India policy on September 2014. It has the following four pillars:

New Processes: To facilitate ease of doing business the new processes have been designed that are entrepreneur friendly and can boost startups in manufacturing and other sectors too.
New Infrastructure: The development of world class infrastructure supported by State of the art technologies and advanced communication systems. Requirement of skills for the industry are identified and then skill development areas are focused on. IPR infrastructure too is improved for faster registration.
New Sectors: Manufacturing sectors have been identified and FDI norms liberated in defence production, medical devices, construction and railways.
New Mindset: In order to partner with industry on the economic development of the country , the government shall act as a facilitator not regulator.
Ministry of Law and Justice
This is the oldest ministry of the government first established by the Charter Act 1833. Under this act the power of making legislations was in the hands of Governor General. After independence the power of making legislations was conferred in the Parliament.

Constitution, laws are not the only sources of legislations. There is delegated legislation where the permanent executive makes laws based on the framework given by Parliament. Decisions of Supreme court and High courts are binding on all within the jurisdiction.Local customs and conventions that are not against any statute are also upheld in validity by courts.

Personal Law
Personal law comes under concurrent list and so both the center and the state can make laws for the people.

Triple Talaq vs Uniform Civil Code: Article 44

Imposing a uniform civil code on its citizens might be met with protests by minority groups and an alternative to this option must be explored. Many nations including Israel and Singapore have recognition of Muslim personal law. Neighbours like Sri Lanka too recognize it. Pre independence India also had many leaders like Gandhiji himself who sought to provide constitutional protection to personal laws of Muslims or minorities even Nehru had concurred. However Article 44 went against this and made it a non obligatory duty of the state to have a uniform civil code for its citizens. Personal law provides for protection of customs and traditions which form an integral part of life of communities.

Delimitation Commission
The readjustment of Lok Sabha and assembly constituencies is needed to ensure that all votes have an equal weight. The current delimitation was done on basis of 2001 census after a period of 35 years. the Government asper its population policy has put a freeze on delimitation upto year 2026 to ensure that states pursue aggresively population stabilization measures. However the government has continued to adjust constituency boundaries of states for legislative bodies and also boundaries of constituency reserved for SC and ST without affecting the number of seats reserved for them.

Hence the delimation Act was passed in 2002 and the delimitation commission was setup. The comission is headed by a Retd Judge of Supreme Court and ex-officio members are Election comissioner of India and State Election Comissioner.

The exercise of delimitation is for all states except J&K and the government cant veto the Delimitation orders. Even the Supreme court cant intervene in such matters.

Labor Reforms

Ministry of Labor has launched the Pandit Deendayal Shramev Jayate karyakram scheme. Under this there are five schemes to ease doing business and ensure government work in imparting skill training to people.

Shram suvidha portal: Online filing of compliance of 16 out of 44 forms through a web portal.
Universal Account number: To be provided to subscribers and can remain same even if job is changed.
Random inspection scheme: Computerized generation of a workplace that can be inspected. Report of inspection has to be filed within 72 hours.
Apprentice protsahan yojana: Reimbursement of upto 50% of the stipend paid to apprentice by a company for two years.
Rashtriya swasthya bima yojana: Two more social security schemes can be seeded in the smart cards given to workers of the organised sector.
Mass Communications

Prasar Bharati

Broadcasting corporation of India has been setup in 1997. It has two wings: All India Radio and Doordarshan.

Prasar Bharati Board:

Chairman – Three year term, part time, age limit – 70
CEO – full time, five year term.
6 Part time members,
Full time member for Personnel and Finance.
Representative of I&B ministry, DG of All India radio and Doordarshan.
All India Radio:

It has three tier system of broadcasting viz. national, regional, local. It caters to information, education and entertainment needs of the country. Today it has 578 transmitters and 407 stations.


It is one of the leading TV organizations in the world.


Registrar of Newspapers: Verifies and approves titles of newspapers, registers, checks and establishes circulation claims.
Press Information Bureau: Act as an interface between government and the media.
Press Council of India: Quasi judicial autonomous authority created to maintain the freedom of press and improve quality of news and print media. the decisions of this body cant be questioned in any court of law.

Youth Affairs and Sports

India has 65% of its population under 35 years. India shall become the fourth largest economy by 2020 but its median age of population will be 28 years unlike US, China and Japan. To ensure this demographic dividend is utilized India needs to invest in programs and policies.

National Youth Policy, 2014

Policy aims to propose holistic vision for the youth i.e. age group 15-29 years and empower them to achieve their full potential and through them enable India to find its rightful place in the community of nations.


Create a productive workforce to make sustainable contribution to India’s growth.
Develop a strong and healthy generation to take on future challenges
Instill social values and community spirit
Facilitate civic engagement and participation in governance
Support at risk youth and create opportunity for disadvantaged and marginalized youth.

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award

Given to outstanding sportsperson to honor them. It carries cash prize of Rs. 7.5 lakh

Arjuna Awards

Not more than 15 awards are given per year to sportpersons who show great achievements in preceding four years at international stage and outstanding work in current year. Cash prize Rs. 5 lakh.

Dhyan Chand award for lifetime achievement in sports and games

Dronacharya Award

Given to coaches who have trained teams enabling them to achieve awards at international stage.
Boxing coach B.I.Fernandes became the 1st foreign coach to get the award, he is from Cuba

Lodha Panel: Highs and Lows

Lodha Panel reforms for Cricket in India

The Supreme Court mandated the Lodha panel to institute drastic structural reforms in Cricket Administration. This shall have a significant impact on the working of the 30 Cricket associations in India.

Problems faced by Cricket Administrations in India:

The smaller states of North East didn’t have any votes but the larger and hence more prosperous associations like Maharashtra and Gujarat got more than one association and more votes.

Thus this led to a few men holding and retaining power of presidency for a long time. Politicians to started occupying major role in these bodies.

No Age, tenure limits led to mentally and physically infirm members in the Association presidency.

Ministers too were allowed to become office bearers. This led to politicization of sports and led to vote bank creation. Merit based and effective governance was absent.

No financial scrutiny meant that the finances of state associations were handled in unprofessional manner.

Players too did not have say in Cricket Administration. Their interests and rights weren’t safeguarded as they didn’t have a union. India was the only Test playing nation to not have a players union.

Selectors numbered 5 and were from the different zones of India. This meant that there was a large pool of domestic talent to choose from. However there was also a chance of conflict of interest as zonal selectors would choose players from their own zones.

Solutions by the Lodha Panel:

Every state shall get full member status and states with multiple bodies like Maharashtra and Gujarat shall have to give voting power to individual associations in them on rotation basis. Thus in Maharashtra , Mumbai Cricket Association shall get coupled with Maharashtra and get voting power once every two years.

Smaller states in the North east shall get more power in decision making. But these states have hardly any cricketing background and so influential people can use them to win important positions.

No office bearer above age of 70. Fixed term of 3 years and then a three year cooling period. No official can be in power for more than 9 years.

Ministers and Government servants are barred from holding positions. This step shall make a big difference in professionalizing the Cricket Associations.

However a three year term followed by a cooling period will mean that a revolving door situation shall be created which could impact accountability.

Players given right to form association that shall safeguard their interest. This will also get them representation in Cricket associations and say in administrative matters.

Selectors shall be retired test match players. This shall however restrict the pool of selectors. Talented cricketers who have represented the country in ODI’s and T20’s shall be ignored
However the Muslim Personal in India is based on English interpretations and not on Quran or Shariah. Thus the Indian version of the Law allows unbridled power to the Husband in matters of divorce. This is in complete contrary to the spirit of the Quranic version which is fair to both parties and requires the husband to convince the court on the grounds for divorce. The Quranic interpretation wants divorce as a last resort after exhaustive efforts of reconciliation have failed. Moreover the wife can seek conditions in the Nikahnama related to provision for pocket money, allowing visit to parents and bar on a second wife.


Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!

Q1:__are the two sectors reserved for public sector

1.Atomic energy and Railway operations

2.Telecom and railways

3.railways and airlines

4.airlines and shipping

Q2:National Manufacturing Policy

1.Enhancing share of manufacturing to 25% of GDP and generate 100 million jobs in the field of manufacturing.

2.Skill based training to workers making them employable

3.Easing compliance norms for industries.Simplify procedures.


Q3:Personal law comes under

1.union list

2.state list

3.concurrent list

4.residuary powers

Q4:the Government asper its population policy has put a freeze on delimitation upto year ___ to ensure that states pursue aggresively population stabilization measures.





Q5:Pandit Deendayal Shramev Jayate karyakram scheme has

1.Shram suvidha portal

2.Universal Account number: To be provided to subscribers and can remain same even if job is changed.

3.Apprentice protsahan yojana