Stage I: Politics Administration Dichotomy
Separation of politics and administration first proposed by Woodrow Wilson “Father of Public Administration”. He said politics is policy making while administration is policy execution. Hence he called for a separate study of public administration.
Wilson’s essay was epochal in delineating conduct of government as a field of analytical study and generalization and beginning of public administration as a subject. Public administration was neglected in the 19th century as population was manageable and administration was simple.
Goals of public administration are:
Stage II: Principles of Administration
Certain principles could be discovered that increased the efficiency, economy of public administration. The argument was administration was administration irrespective of the work. Principles were independent of the nature of enterprise, personnel and creation theory.
Stage III: Dichotomy i.e. separation of politics from administration was rejected. Since administration has policy formulation so it can’t be separated from politics.
He wanted public administration to understand the basis of administration in different states. To learn weakness or virtues by comparison. To learn more efficient administration methods of European autocracies to meet democratic challenges without force.
Europe had seen a growth in administration as governments in European countries had been independent of popular assent. The desire to keep government a monopoly made monopolists interested in the least irritating means of governing. European ideas of government were for compact, centralized states so their ideas, aim, thoughts, principles were needed to be changed.
Wilson wanted reforms in administration to extend to executive functions and methods of executive organization, actions.
However his drawback was proponent of administration politics dichotomy. His theory was vague, ambivalent and didn’t answer what study of administration entails, proper relationship between administration and politics and whether adminstrative science can be natural science.