South America has three topographical regions: Eastern region, western highlands and Paraguayan region below the eastern region.


In the north, llanos grasslands are seen. These are treeless Savannah with swampy grass. Salves are equatorial forests.


Amazon river system is the main river system. Petroleum reserves are present at the mouth.


Patagonia desert located on the rain shadow region of the Andes range.


Fig 1: South American landforms

Equatorial crops are cocoa, avocado, coffee, pineapple and rubber. Tropical regions grow crops like corn, potato, tomato, tobacco. Mediterranean climate is seen in middle Chile where viticulture and livestock farming is seen.


Andes is the longest mountain range. Angel waterfalls, Venezuela is the highest waterfalls.



  1. Fourth largest continent and fifth in terms of population.
  2. Sao Paulo, Brazil is largest city. Brazil is largest country.
  3. Amazon is the second longest river after Nile but largest in terms of volume of water it carries.
  4. Lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia is the highest commercially navigable lake in the world and largest in South America.
  5. Atacama desert in Chile is driest in the world.
  6. Puerto Toro, Chile is the southern most inhabitated place in the world. Ushuaia, Argentina is the southern most city in the world.
  7. La Paz, Bolivia is the highest capital city in the world.
  8. Amazon rainforest is the largest in the world.

Chapter Review

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Q1:The widest river in the world is

  1. brahmaputra
  2. ganga
  3. nile
  4. amazon


Q2:Grasslands found in South America are

  1. pampas
  2. llanos
  3. both
  4. none


Q3:longest mountain range in the World

  1. atlas
  2. himalaya
  3. andes
  4. appalachian


Q4:Highest waterfall in the world

  1. Angel, Venezuala
  2. Jog, India
  3. Victoria
  4. none


Q5:highest commercially navigable lake in the world

  1. peru
  2. baikal
  3. titicaca
  4. victoria