Science and Technology

Dept of Science and Technology has devoted its attention on strengthening of the pool of scientist and technologists capable of carrying out globally competitive R&D, nurturing R&D institutions, building capacity of institutions for technology commercialization, providing benefits of S&T to society and policy formulation for S&T sector.

The dept is also undertaking implementation of National Mission on Preserving Himalayan ecosystem and National mission on Strategic knowledge for climate change under the National action plan for climate change.

Science technology Innovation Policy

Science Research and Innovation system for high technology led path for India [SHRISTI] aims to make India one of the top five of six knowledge centers. Dept has established Policy research Cell in academic institutes to develop and design new programs and action plans for science and technology.

Science and Engineering Research Board

Increase in the monthly stipend of SERB Young Scientist to Rs. 55000 pm and continuation of the post doctoral fellowship program under Indo US Science and Technology Forum for three years.

Women scientist scheme

To provide support to women scientist to pursue research in basic and advanced sciences.

Survey of India

National survey and mapping organization established in 1767.


1.Provide base maps for expeditious and integrated development

  1. Maintain topographical map of India of various scales.
  2. Participation in projects of seismology, glaciology, geodetic surveys, Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica.
  3. Support to countries under bilateral commitments related to survey like capacity building and technology transfer.
  4. Survey of large scale development projects like dams, power stations.
  5. Certify maps of private players and demarcates external boundary of India and inter state boundaries too.

Promoting innovations in Individuals, Startups, M.S.M.E’s [PRISM]

Aim to support individual innovators which will enable to inclusive development. It also provides grants to autonomous institutions for state of the art technology development and work in the field of certain thrust areas of the department.

Dept of Atomic Energy

Established in 1954 engaged in the development of nuclear technologies and radiation technologies in various fields.It is also spearheading nuclear technology development and India’s three stage nuclear program.

NPCIL is the organization under DAE that handles construction, design and operation of nuclear reactors. Apsara, India’s first atomic reactor at Tarapur, Maharashtra was built with the help of General Electric, USA. The first reactor at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan was built with the help of Canada.

Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, HQ Mumbai is an independent body under Environment Protection Act, 1986 and Atomic Energy Act that monitors safety at nuclear installations.

Transport Sector

Ministry of Shipping and Ministry of Road transport and highways are coordinating policies and programs of various modes of transport except airlines and railways.

Currently Indian Railways has the largest rail network in Asia and the world’s second largest under a single management.

Roads are approx 47 lakh km with national highways 1 lakh km with 40% of traffic, state highways are 1.5 lakh km and rest are other roads.

National Highways Authority of India is a body to maintain National Highways appointed by the central government. Chairman, 6 full time and 4 part time members are present. The NHAI also completing the Golden Quadrilateral project [Delhi – Mumbai – Chennai – Kolkata – Delhi], Connect all major ports to highways, North- South & East West i.e. Srinagar to kanyakumari and Silchar to Porbandar.

Border Roads Development Board and its executive arm Border Roads organization functions to develop roads in border areas.


70% of India’s trade by value and 90% by volume moves through the Maritime route. It is the most efficient mode of transport for industry. Inland waterways authority of India is the regulator of inland waterways. Inland transport though has good capacity but currently only 1% of cargo payment is from inland transport. Allahabad Haldia are the oldest streches declared as inland waterways.

Kolkata Port:

It is the oldest and the only riverine port of India.

Paradip port

The first major port on the East Coast to be commissioned after independence.

Civil Aviation

Formulation of national policies and regulation and development of national civil air transport service. It also handles the administrative supervision over rail safety commission that handles the safety in rail travel

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security – 1978

It handles the training, coordination, monitoring, inspection of civil aviation security personnel.

Airports Authority of India

It is the main agency that handles building of airports throughout the length and breadth of India.


  1. Air traffic service throughout the 2.8 million square nautical miles of India
  2. Management of airports and civil enclaves at defence airports.

GAGAN – GPS Augmented Geo navigation system

Developed by AAI and ISRO to use the integrity and augment the GPS signals for precision needs of civil aviation.

Pawan Hans

To provide helicopter services to the oil sector, make helicopter services available to remote and hilly regions and provide charter services for travel and tourism.

Water Resources

The Ministry of Water resources, river development and ganga rejuvenation handles policy formulation for the water resources sector, command area development, ganga and its tributary rejuvenation and inter state water disputes. 1869 billion cubic meters is the totalavailability of water out of which 1123 BCM is usable out of which 690 BCM is surface water and 433 BCM is replenishable ground water.

Namami Ganga

Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission for development of ghats and river beautification at fronts.

National Water Mission

One of the eight missions of the National Action Plan on Climate change


  1. Comprehensive water database
  2. increase water use efficiency by 20%
  3. focus on vulnerable and over exploited areas
  4. Promotion of basin level integrated water resource management

National Water resource council and National Water Plan

PM is the chairman, Vice chairman is the Union minister for water resources, concerned minister of state or union ministers , chief ministers of state and administrators of union territories are members.

Salient features of the policy

  1. National water framework law for optimum conservation of interstate resources and river valleys
  2. Grants to states to upgrade technology
  3. Water resource authority shall be setup
  4. Community participation in water conservation projects.

Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program

Loan assistance to states for completing minor/major irrigation projects that are in the advanced stage of completion.

Central Water Commission

Headed by a chairman, it has three wings Research, Planning and projects and Design. Each wing has a Additional secretary level officer to supervise. The CWC also has regional offices for coordination with states and training institutes.

The main function is coordination with states for implementation of projects that involve conservation, control, utilization of water resources for purpose of irrigation, drinking and power generation.


Ministry of Social justice and empowerment has two departments Dept of Social justice and empowerment and Dept of Empowerment of people with disabilities. Amongst the 2.68 crore people with disabilities which are 2.21% of India’s population 1.5 crore are male and 1.1 crore are female.

Protection of Civil Rights

This act prohibits untouchability and extends to the whole of India.

Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes [ Atrocities] Act contains provisions for punishments for offences committed by persons other than SC and ST’s on SC and ST.

Tribal Sub Plan

Started in the fifth five year plan for rapid socio – economic development of tribal people.


  1. Funds provided under TSP of the state have to be equal to the proportion of ST in the state.
  2. Tribal’s and tribal areas of a state get benefit of funds under TSP plus funds allocated under plans of states or UT’s.
  3. TSP should identify all resources, allocate them effectively,monitor and evaluate them and involve community in the design.

Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India

TRIFED works as a market developer and service provider to state level tribal cooperative societies that procure tribal minor forest produce in bulk. TRIBES India is the shop of TRIFED that sells the products marketed by TRIFED.

Forest Rights Act or Scheduled tribes and other forest dwellers Act recognizes rights of forest dwellers or ST’s for collecting minor forest produce, protect water bodies, have rituals and customs and in situ rehabilitation.

Schemes for Women


Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls is for all round development of girls. It has nutrition component that involves providing 600 calories for 300 days a year to adolescent girls and young girls. Non nutrition component is for health and sex education, health checkups, accessing public services, vocational training and Iron folic acid supplementation


Formation of self help groups of vulnerable and at risk women in the focus areas i.e. mid gangetic plains. The women shall be given improved livelihood opportunities. NABARD is the lead agency for implementation.


Provide the destitude and vulnerable women who dont have options like family, education or wealth to support them. Such women are identified and their integrated and holistic development is done. Implementation agencies are Urban local bodies, Dept of Welfare/ Women and Child development department.


Comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking of humans from minors to cross border victims.

Gender Budgeting

It is a technique of keeping the gender perspective in mind before policy formulation and considering gender issues in implementation and review. Gender budgeting cells have been setup in ministries by mandate of Ministry of Finance since 2005. Ministry of Women and Child welfare is the nodal ministry for policy coordination.

Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao

To improve the child sex ratio and sensitize the society against problems of women and girls, this scheme was launched. The initial corpus of Rs. 100 crore is sanctioned for this.


1.Activate school management committees for ensuring universal enrollment of girls

  1. Balika manch in schools
  2. toilets for girls
  3. construction of hostels
  4. re-enrollment of girls who have dropped out.

Stree Shakti Puraskar

Constituted for women who have achieved distinction in field of social work. 6 national awards were constituted each with cash prize of Rs. 3 lakh and citation each award named after distinguished  women viz. Rani Jijabai, Ahilyabai holkar, Rudramma devi, Kannagi, Laxmibai, Rani Gaidenliou Zeliong.

Central Adoption Resource Authority

Autonomous body under Ministry of Women and Child development to handle adoption of Indian children. CARINGS , is an IT application for transparent conduction of the procedure of adoption.

Q.With reference to the use of nanotechnology in health sector, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology
2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2015)

    • 1 only

    • 2 only

    • Both 1 and 2

    • Neither 1 nor 2

Ans . C

  1. Nanosystems have significantly different biological properties from large-sized systems (e.g. implants or microparticles) that could be used effectively to overcome problems in drug and gene therapy. In drug therapy, we face the problems of inefficacy or nonspecific effects; hence, nanosystems are being developed for targeted drug therapy.

  2. In gene therapy using non-viral systems, the main issues are relatively transient gene expression and lower efficiency than viral vectors.

  3. Research efforts have focused on understanding the barriers in gene delivery so that non-viral systems can be developed that are as effective as viral systems in gene transfection.

Q.In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at South Pole, which was recently in the news :
1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter
3. It is buried deep in the ice.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (UPSC CSAT 2015)

    • 1 only

    • 2 and 3 only

    • 1 and 3 only

    • 1, 2 and 3 only

Ans . D

  1. IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless subatomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars.

  2. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter and could reveal the physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

  3. It is buried beneath the surface, extending to a depth of about 2,500 meters. Burying it deep in ice is important to enhance the precision of the detector.

Q.With reference to ‘Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a contactless communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio fields
2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other
3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2015)

    • 1 and 2 only

    • 3 only

    • 1 and 3 only

    • 1, 2 and 3

Ans . C

  1. Near field communication, abbreviated NFC, is a form of contactless communication based on electromagnetic radio fields between devices like smartphones or tablets. Contactless communication allows a user to wave the smartphone over a NFC compatible device to send information without needing to touch the devices together or go through multiple steps setting up a connection.

  2. Bluetooth can connect to devices up to 32 feet away, yet near field communication can connect to devices at a maximum distance of 4 centimeters on average.

  3. Both businesses and individuals benefit from near field communication technology. By integrating credit cards, subway tickets, and paper coupons all into one device, a customer can board a train, pay for groceries, redeem coupons or store loyalty points, and even exchange contact information all with the wave of a smartphone.


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Q1:[SHRISTI] aims to

1.make India one of the top five of six knowledge centers.

2.Increase in the monthly stipend of SERB Young Scientist

3.To provide support to women scientist to pursue research in basic and advanced sciences.


Q2:PRISM is for

1.support individual innovators which will enable to inclusive development.

2.To provide support to women scientist to pursue research in basic and advanced sciences.



Q3: India’s first atomic reactor at Tarapur is named





Q4:It is the oldest and the only riverine port of India.





Q5: GAGAN is for



3..GPS aided navigation

4.Helicopter service