Every culture offers support and obstacles to change and development. Riggs wanted to demonstrate how external conditions influence administrative systems.
Ecological Approach: Administration is one subsystem of a society and so is influenced by other subsystems viz. political, social, cultural and economic dimensions.
Structural Functional Approach: Society has many structures that perform various functions viz. political, economic, social, symbolic, communicational. The same set of functional requisites apply to a administrative subsystem.
Ideal Models: Based on structural functional models. There are two models:
All societies are either agro dominant or industrial. The shift from agro to industrial is compulsory and unidirectional.
|Agriculture dominant||Industrial dominant|
|Ascriptive values i.e. people are placed in social classes based on birth or other factors.||achievement oriented classification|
|particularistic norms||universalistic norms|
|diffuse patterns||specific patterns|
|stable local groups and low spatial mobility||high mobility|
|simple occupational differentiation||egalitarian class system|
|Few administration structures. Function not specified. Primordial preferences given priority like caste|
Represents underdeveloped, developed and developing societies. Traditionally agriculture, folk, societies are fused, industrial societies are diffracted and intermediate ones are fused. Thus fused society is where a single structure performs many functions and diffracted one is where a single structure performs limited functions.
Prismatic model of developing countries: