The Sepoy’s of Meerut reached Delhi and killed the European officers and entered the red fort. They urged the Mughal Emperor Bahadur shah [a pensioner for the east India Company] to become their leader and give legitimacy to their cause. The Mughal emperor was initially reluctant but gave in and was declared Shahenshah of Hindustan. Capture of Delhi provided a rallying point to the movement. The movement then spread to rest of north India, central and western India too. However south India, Punjab and Bengal were marginally affected.
Beginning of the revolt
Before the Meerut incident the 19th native Behrampur infantry refused to use the Enfield rifles. 34th infantry soldier at Barrackpore Mangal Pande fired at his superior and was executed and his unit disbanded. Oudh infantry officers too had same fate.
The absence of leaders of military rank led to emergence of territorial aristocrats and feudal chiefs who had suffered under British. At Kanpur Nana sahib was the leader [son of last Peshwa Baji rao II]. In Awadh Begum Hazrat Mahal took over leadership under her son Birjis Qadr’s name.
At Rohilkhand Bahadur khan offered resistance to the British by organizing an army. In Bihar Kunwar Singh a zamindar discontent with the British joined the mutiny. In Jhansi Rani Laxmibai joined the mutiny and was the most formidable opponent to the British. Initially she offered to the British to keep Jhansi safe if they recognized her adopted son as the heir [under Dalhousie doctrine of lapse adopted heir couldn’t succeed to the throne].
1. Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation had created strong anti British feelings in minds of people from areas unjustly annexed by British. The royal families and princes were alarmed by the doctrine of lapse.
2. It was feared that the British were going to convert the army to Christianity and destroy the religion of the army. The army was dominated by upper caste Hindus and the British could segregate them on caste and other distinctions. This would have affected the cohesiveness of the unit.
3. Indian soldier had to go overseas to fight and this meant a caste was lost. Thus he would be disbarred from his fraternity.
4. Indian peasantry and artisans were exploited by the unfair British policies.
5. Christian missionaries were allowed to preach to the soldiers. There were rumors that the cartridge of Enfield rifles was coated with grease of cow and pig. Thus the Sepoy felt his religion was in danger as cow is sacred to Hindus and pig meat is avoided by Muslims.
Though the revolt failed it inspired a national movement which achieved what the revolt couldn’t. It was hailed as the first war of independence by Vir Sawarkar.
PM of Britain Benjamin Disraeli called admitted it wasn’t a local revolt but a National Uprising.
The revolt led to change in the character of Indian administration. The administration was transferred from Company to the queen by a proclamation on 1st November 1858.
Lord canning became the last governor general and first viceroy.
1. Endorsed treaty made by the Company with the princes would be respected. The rights, powers, dignity and honor of princes would be protected.
2. Indians would get equal protection of law and freedom of religion and social practices.
3. Impartial admission to public services for Indians.
4. Confirmed appointments of the officers of east India company.
Positives from the 1857 Revolt
1. A positive leadership was clearly still less to be expected from the world of the ‘native’ princes and zamindars. Post-1857 British policy was fairly consistently geared towards an alliance with such ‘feudal’ elements—’breakwaters in the storm’, Canning had already described many of them to be even during the Mutiny itself..
2. The new policy involved forgetting about the doctrine of lapse, returning Mysore to its Hindu ruling family after fifty years in 1881, Durbar pageantry under Lytton and an Imperial Service Corps under Dufferin, and public school-type education for the sons of princes at Mayo College in Ajmer and for Avadh taluk-dars at Colvin College in Lucknow..
3. ‘British paramountcy’ was always firmly maintained in theory and enforced whenever necessary in practice through British Residents, but under this overall umbrella feudal paraphernalia and autocracy were encouraged to flourish in the one-third of India theoretically under ‘native’ rule.
4. Thus, The princely states remained social, cultural and political backwaters, petty despotisms which did not have to bother about the legal forms and civic rights which had been developed with much fanfare in British India .
5. It was only the development of the States Peoples’ Movement from the 1930s which united these artificially secluded islands with the sub-continental mainstream, and thus the British claim to have been the unifiers of India is also more than a little dubious..
6.As for the zamindars, landlord-dominated bodies like the British Indian Association of Calcutta had anticipated many of the later demands of the Moderate Congress in the 1850s, but with the rise of ‘middle class’ associations from the 1870s these rapidly degenerated into ultra-loyalist and largely inactive coteries.
Q1:Queen Victoria’s proclamation
Q2:1857 revolt was hailed as the first war of independence by
Q3:Lord ____ became the last governor general and first viceroy
Q4: Reasons for the failure of the revolt
Q5:Enfield rifles were introduced at