NPA evolved in 1960’s due to turmoil in US due to war and unrest. The public administration scholars organized Minnesbrooke conference under chairmanship of Waldo.

Anti Goals of N.P.A:

  1. Anti Positivism: Reject definition of public administration as value free and make public administration more flexible, receptive, problem solving.
  2. Anti Technical: Respects emotive creative human and doesn’t treat him like a cog in the machine.
  3. Anti bureaucratic and anti hierarchical.

Goals of NPA:

  1. Relevance: Public administration focused on efficiency and economy. These had little significance to modern problems and so were insignificant. NPA wanted meaningful studies towards realities of social life.
  2. Values: Reject value neutral stand of public administration. It wants openness about values being served through administration action.
  3. Social equity: Administrators should be champions of underprivileged. They should use discretion to protect poor.
  4. Change: Reject status quo and bring innovations in administrative machinery for bringing about social change.
  5. Client focus: Focus on providing goods, services to clients and also giving them a voice in how, when, what is to be provided.


NPA challenges public administration to be more proactive to major social issues. NPA is important for 3rd World countries that need De-bureaucratization and basic, quantitative transformation.


  1. Views mankind as malleable and perfectible.
  2. Stress on personal, organizational values or ethics.
  3. Brought public administration closer to political science.
  4. Emphasis on social equity, innovation, change.

Waldo : “Emphasis on normative theory, philosophy, social concern and activism. Turns away from positivism and scienticism.”

Fredrickson: “Less generic more public. Less descriptive more prescriptive. Change oriented. Competent to implement good policies. Client oriented, normative. Scientific.”

NPA unlike development administration is applicable to western countries too”.

Anti Theoretic, Anti positivist, anti management, tries to claim things that are in jurisdiction of political institutions, processes and leadership.

New Public Administration II

Synthesis of public and private management. What, Why from public administration and How from private administration. Emphasis was on performance appraisal, managerial autonomy, cost cutting, downsizing and de-bureaucratization. Government was seen as a facilitator.

Features of NPA

  1. Catalytic government: Government should focus on catalyzing public and private sector and NGO’s into solving societal problems.
  2. Community owned government: Government should empower citizens to solve their own problems thus taking various services from control of bureaucracy.
  3. Competitive government: Improve performance, reduce cost by creating competition among service providers.
  4. Mission driven government: Government should be driven by goals rather than rules.
  5. Result orientation: Focus on outcomes by encouraging target achievement and mission directed efforts.
  6. Customer driven government: Less institution oriented more client impact oriented.
  7. Enterprising government: Focus on generating money than just spending.
  8. Anticipatory government: Proactive than fire fighting approach. Responsiveness should be inbuilt the system to meet changes.
  9. Decentralization: Shift from hierarchical to participatory management and team work.
  10. Market oriented government: Opt for market mechanisms not bureaucratic.

Motivate employees by using HR methods this will boost their morale and they can serve citizens proactively.


Total quality management is delivering quality services to employees.

  1. Re-engineering: Remove old jobs, processes, rules and plan jobs again and train employees to focus on eliminating inefficiency and increase productivity.
  2. Bench marking: Compare works and methods against best practices to improve quality and output.
  3. Empowerment: Employees are free to take initiatives, make decisions and monitor results.