India accounts for 17% of the World’s Cattle population.. 64% of the buffalo population and 4% is rate of increase in milk. The per capita availability of milk is 281 gm/day. World average is 284 gm/day.


Rise of Amul 


It started as a cooperative due to effort of Sardar Patel in Kheda. Dr. Vergese kurien led the cooperative during the white revolution from 1950-1973. Amul became the first to make cheese and baby products from buffalo milk.


National dairy development board

It was founded in 1964 by Lal Bahadur Shastri with Vergese Kurien as its chairman and HQ at Anand. The NDDB launched Operation Flood to replicate Anand pattern in other parts of India. This made India the leading producer of milk in the world.


Operation Flood

  • Phase 1: Mother dairies in four metros where production, collection, marketing from rural areas to metros.
  • Phase 2: Thousands of sheds and outlets by milk cooperatives covered. Vaccination developed for animal health.
  • Phase 3: Increase infrastructure for procurement. R&D in animal health and nutrition. Feed, veterinary service, artificial insemination and dairy education for union members.



  1.  Increased milk production and increased rural incomes of small and marginal farmers.
  2.  Women empowerment as NDDB with SEWA established 6000 dairy cooperatives run by women.
  3.  NDDB developed indigenous expertise in field of animal nutrition, health, dairy engineering, food technology, artificial insemination.



To meet the needs of fodder and feed stock for animal nutrition. The ministry of agriculture launched this in 2014-15.


Feed security bill:

  1. Milk pricing policy and milk credit cards at minimum interest rates.
  2. Gobar bank
  3. Marketing for cow products.
  4. Collection center for cow urine to enhance farmer income.


      Veterinary issues:

  1.  Shortage of veterinary colleges and institutes.
  2.  Poor condition of semen banks
  3.  Need for universal vaccination for cattle.


Indigenous breeds are facing threat of extinction. Currently 83% of cow population in indigenous but this had declined by 8% since 2007. This is due to cross breeding, farm mechanization, cultivation of cash crops, decline of grazing areas.


The Indian breeds are better as they are suitable for arid conditions, drought related work, tolerant to diseases, can be fed agricultural wastes and though milk yield is less but nutrition quality is better.


Schemes for protecting indigenous breeds: Ministry of Agriculture


  1.  Rashtriya Kamdhenu Breeding Centers
  •  Center for certified genetics and repository of germplasm.
  •  One each in north and south India.


  1. Rashtriya Gokul mission
  •  Conserve Indian breeds in a scientific manner.
  •  Enhancing productivity of Indians breeds and upgrading germplasm.


Indian Fishery:

  1. Marine fishery of India is lagging as Indian ocean is least explored of all oceans for fishery. 75% of marine fishery comes from west coast. [Gujarat > Kerela > Maharashtra]
  2. India’s offshore fishery bad due to poverty among fishing community. Low use of technology and poor infrastructure for storage and packaging. In addition, monsoon and cyclones hinder fishing.
  3. Inland fishery production is more than marine also growth rate is higher [WB > Gujarat > Kerela > Andhra > Maharashtra]. Reasons are large delta of Ganga and high demand, extensive lakes and lagoons or strong cooperative movement.
  4. India is the second largest inland fish producer and seventh largest in terms of marine fish production. OverallIndia is the second largest fish producer.


Blue revolution in 5th FYP in 1970

The development of a fish breeding development agency for brackish water was created. The goal was to develop new techniques of fish breeding, cultivation, export and marketing.


This led to increase in shrimp production. Nellore, AP became shrimp capital of the world.



  1. Breeding of high value fin fish or shell fisheries
  2. Ornamental fishery
  3. Development of organic aqua culture, water recirculating units, technology for inland saline areas.



  1. Mechanization
  • Finance
  • Information awareness
  1. Trade
  • H.A.C.C.P and codex norms to be followed.
  • Packaging and cold storage infrastructure development
  1. Quality control
  • Hygiene at ports.
  • Sustainable practices.
  • Ban on fishing during breeding seasons, not using fine size nets.

Chapter Review

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!


Q1:India has the highest population of which milch animal

  1. cow
  2. buffalo
  3. camel
  4. goat


Q2:Which is true?

  1. National dairy development board It was founded in 1964 by Lal Bahadur Shastri
  2. Amul It started as a cooperative due to effort of Sardar Patel in Kheda.
  3. both
  4. none


Q3: Veterinary issues in India are

  1. Shortage of veterinary colleges and institutes
  2. Poor condition of semen banks
  3. Need for universal vaccination for cattle.
  4. all


Q4: Rashtriya Kamdhenu Breeding Centers scheme involves

  1. Center for certified genetics
  2. repository of germplasm
  3. both
  4. none


Q5:Rashtriya Gokul mission involves

  1. Conserve Indian breeds in a scientific manner.
  2. Enhancing productivity of Indians breeds and upgrading germplasm.
  3. both
  4. none