Rubber is obtained from Latex which is taken from rubber tree. A delicate incision is made without damaging the tree. Then sap is collected by cups. This requires high number of cheap and skilled labor. Rubber trees can’t tolerate cold weather so tropical climate suitable also moisture needs are high. Vulcanization process was invented so natural rubber found many applications. The synthetic rubber was invented by US scientists and it affected demand for natural rubber.
Malaysia is an equatorial country and so climate is suitable for rubber plantations. The research and development has led to newer techniques for collecting sap. Government policy encourages re-planting of rubber trees as newer trees yield 3-4 times more rubber. Also strict quality control norms for export mean that quality is stable and product is respected in market.
Sugarcane has high weight loss as a raw material for sugar. Only 10% by weight of sugarcane can be converted to sugar. The sugar mills that manufacture coarse brown sugar use sugarcane as input and so need to be located closer to the source of raw material. Sugarcane also loses sugar content after cutting so needs to be processed fast. Sugar mills produce Bagasse [energy source, pulp and paper industry] and molasses [ethanol] along with press mud [waste]. Bagasse is used for energy production.
Sugar refineries use brown coarse sugar and get refined sugar. As weight loss or shelf life isn’t a problem refineries can be located at ports where the use imported sugar or near markets.
Indian sugar industry is located mostly in Maharashtra and UP. Maharashtra has strong labor force and high area under cultivation. Sugarcane cooperatives are present. Crushing season is longer and sugar content is high as weather is moderate due to influence of oceans.Capital requirements are met and Mumbai region serves as a port and a market for sugar.
Cuba : Sugar bowl of the world
Hot climate and North east trade winds made climate suitable for sugarcane. The American capital was heavily invested in bringing more land under cultivation. Fertile, calciferous soil is present in Cuba. USA and Europe are the world’s largest sugar markets and so demand is high.
Factors affecting Tea plantation:
British Tea industry thrived during the colonization period. Tea was imported from colonies like India, China and exported to European nations. The post-colonization era was a major problem as colonies now directly exported to European regions.
Tea industry of Darjeeling
The Darjeeling tea industry is due to British efforts as they developed an alternate industry as indigo plantations weren’t giving good results.
Coffee is grown on hill slopes as it can’t tolerate water-logging. It needs to be protected from excess sunlight atleast in the initial stages. The coffee berry has to be hand picked and since plantations are on hill slopes the mechanization is also not possible. Coffee loses flavor after roasting and so only preliminary processing is done in the home country and remaining in the importing country.
Brazil Coffee Industry
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Sugar industry in Cuba and Maharashtra
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Coffee industry in Brazil
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Cocoa industry in Ghana
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Rubber industry in Malaysia
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Tea industry in Darjeeling