Atomic energy and Railway operations are the two sectors reserved for public sector. Apart from these compulsory licensing norms are present for few other sectors like electronics of aerospace, defence equipment, hazardous chemicals, alcohol and tobacco products and substitutes.

Any industry not listed above needs to file an Industry Entrepreneurs Memorandum with the Dept of Industrial policy and promotion no license are needed for such industries.

National Manufacturing Policy

  1. Enhancing share of manufacturing to 25% of GDP and generate 100 million jobs in the field of manufacturing.
  2. Skill based training to workers making them employable
  3. Easing compliance norms for industries. Simplify procedures.
  4. National Investment and Manufacturing zones to be setup.

NIMZ shall be conceived as large industry townships with state of the art infrastructure, land use based on zoning, governance structure, fiscal incentives, exit policy, skill training centers and clean, energy efficient technology.

Make in India


PM Modi announced the Make in India policy on September 2014. It has the following four pillars:

  1. New Processes: To facilitate ease of doing business the new processes have been designed that are entrepreneur friendly and can boost startups in manufacturing and other sectors too.
  2. New Infrastructure: The development of world class infrastructure supported by State of the art technologies and advanced communication systems. Requirement of skills for the industry are identified and then skill development areas are focused on. IPR infrastructure too is improved for faster registration.
  3. New Sectors: Manufacturing sectors have been identified and FDI norms liberated in defence production, medical devices, construction and railways.
  4. New Mindset: In order to partner with industry on the economic development of the country , the government shall act as a facilitator not regulator.

Ministry of Law and Justice

This is the oldest ministry of the government first established by the Charter Act 1833. Under this act the power of making legislations was in the hands of Governor General. After independence the power of making legislations was conferred in the Parliament.

Constitution, laws are not the only sources of legislations. There is delegated legislation where the permanent executive makes laws based on the framework given by Parliament. Decisions of Supreme court and High courts are binding on all within the jurisdiction.Local customs and conventions that are not against any statute are also upheld in validity by courts.

Personal Law

Personal law comes under concurrent list and so both the center and the state can make laws for the people.


Triple Talaq vs Uniform Civil Code: Article 44

Imposing a uniform civil code on its citizens might be met with protests by minority groups and an alternative to this option must be explored. Many nations including Israel and Singapore have recognition of Muslim personal law. Neighbours like Sri Lanka too recognize it. Pre independence India also had many leaders like Gandhiji himself who sought to provide constitutional protection to personal laws of Muslims or minorities even Nehru had concurred. However Article 44 went against this and made it a non obligatory duty of the state to have a uniform civil code for its citizens. Personal law provides for protection of customs and traditions which form an integral part of life of communities.


However the Muslim Personal in India is based on English interpretations and not on Quran or Shariah. Thus the Indian version of the Law allows unbridled power to the Husband in matters of divorce. This is in complete contrary to the spirit of the Quranic version which is fair to both parties and requires the husband to convince the court on the grounds for divorce. The Quranic interpretation wants divorce as a last resort after exhaustive efforts of reconciliation have failed. Moreover the wife can seek conditions in the Nikahnama related to provision for pocket money, allowing visit to parents and bar on a second wife.


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Q1:__are the two sectors reserved for public sector
1.Atomic energy and Railway operations
2.Telecom and railways
3.railways and airlines
4.airlines and shipping

Q2:National Manufacturing Policy
1.Enhancing share of manufacturing to 25% of GDP and generate 100 million jobs in the field of manufacturing.
2.Skill based training to workers making them employable
3.Easing compliance norms for industries. Simplify procedures.

Q3:Personal law comes under
1.union list
2.state list
3.concurrent list
4.residuary powers

Q4:the Government asper its population policy has put a freeze on delimitation upto year ___ to ensure that states pursue aggresively population stabilization measures.

Q5:Pandit Deendayal Shramev Jayate karyakram scheme has
1.Shram suvidha portal
2.Universal Account number: To be provided to subscribers and can remain same even if job is changed.
3.Apprentice protsahan yojana