General Instructions :
(i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
(ii) Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
(iii) Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each. Students should attempt only five questions in this section.
(iv) Question no. 10 (for 4 marks) is a value based question and compulsory.
(v) Answer to questions no. 11 to 13 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
(vi) Questions no. 14 to 16 are source based questions and have no internal choice.
(vii) Question no. 17 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
Answer all the questions given below :
1. Describe the basis on which archaeologists identified the centres of craft production in the Harappan culture.
2. Explain the sources of revenue of Village Panchayats during the Mughal rule in India.
3. Examine the impact of ‘Limitation Laws’ passed by the British in 1859.
Answer any five of the following questions :
4. ‘‘There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in the Harappan society.’’ In light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society.
5. Describe the economic and social conditions of the people living in rural areas from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE.
6. ‘‘Ibn Battuta found cities in the Indian subcontinent full of exciting opportunities.’’ Explain the statement with reference to the city of Delhi.
7. ‘‘Sufism evolved as a reaction to the growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political institution.’’ Elucidate.
8. Examine the participation of the Taluqdars of Awadh in the Revolt of 857.
9. Explain why some hill stations were developed during the colonial period in India.
Value Based Question (Compulsory)
10. ‘‘By 1922 Gandhiji had transformed Indian nationalism, thereby redeeming the promise he made in his BHU speech of February 1916. It was no longer a movement of professionals and intellectuals; now,
hundreds of thousands of peasants, workers and artisans also participated in it. Many of them venerated Gandhiji, referring to him as their ‘Mahatma’. They appreciated the fact that he dressed like them,
lived like them and spoke their language, unlike other leaders he did not stand apart from the common folk, but empathised and even identified with them.’’
In light of the above passage, highlight any four values upheld by Mahatma Gandhi.
Long Answer Questions
11. Trace out the growth of Buddhism. Explain the main teachings of Buddha.
Trace out how stupas were built. Explain why the stupa at Sanchi survived, but not at Amravati.
12. Explain why the nobility was recruited from different races and religious groups by the Mughal rulers in India.
Explain the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire
13. ‘‘The communal politics that started during the early decades of the 20th century was largely responsible for the partition of the country.’’ Examine the statement.
‘‘Partition of India had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of separate electorates.’’ Examine the statement.
Source Based Questions
14. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
‘‘Proper’’ Social Roles
Here is a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata :
Once Drona, a Brahmana who taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Ekalavya, a forest-dwelling nishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Ekalavya returned to the forest, prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru
princes went hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Ekalavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deer skin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekalavya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Ekalavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.
Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Ekalavya, who immediately acknowledged and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as
he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word : no one was better than Arjuna.
(14.1) Why did Drona refuse to have Ekalavya as his pupil ?
(14.2) How had Drona kept his word given to Arjuna ?
(14.3) Do you think Drona’s behaviour with Ekalavya was justified ? If so, give reason.
15. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that ‘‘it struggled long under the miseries of bad management … before the South came under the benign influence of the British government.’’ By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain ‘‘much useful information on many of
these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day.’’
(15.1) Who was Colin Mackenzie ?
(15.2) How did Mackenzie try to rediscover the Vijayanagara Empire ?
(15.3) How was the study of the Vijayanagara Empire useful to the East India Company ?
16. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
‘‘Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law’’
On 5 April, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi spoke at Dandi :
When I left Sabarmati with my companions for this seaside hamlet of Dandi, I was not certain in my mind that we would be allowed to reach this place. Even while I was at Sabarmati there was a rumour that I might be arrested. I had thought that the Government might perhaps let my party come as far as Dandi, but not me certainly. If someone says that this betrays imperfect faith on my part, I shall not deny
the charge. That I have reached here is in no small measure due to the power of peace and non-violence : that power is universally felt. The Government may, if it wishes, congratulate itself on acting as it has done, for it could have arrested every one of us. In saying that it did not have the courage to arrest this army of peace, we praise it. It felt ashamed to arrest such an army. He is a civilised man who
feels ashamed to do anything which his neighbours would disapprove. The Government deserves to be congratulated on not arresting us, even if it desisted only from fear of world opinion.
Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law. Whether the Government will tolerate that is a different question. It may not tolerate it, but it deserves congratulations on the patience and forbearance it has displayed in regard to this party. …
What if I and all the eminent leaders in Gujarat and in the rest of the country are arrested ? This movement is based on the faith that when a whole nation is roused and on the march no leader is necessary.
(16.1) What were the apprehensions of Mahatma Gandhi when he started his Dandi March ?
(16.2) Why did Gandhiji say that the Government deserved to be congratulated ?
(16.3) Why was the ‘Salt March’ very significant ?
17. (17.1) On the given political outline map of India (on page 15), locate and label the following appropriately :
(a) Amritsar an important centre of National Movement.
(b) Agra a territory under Babur.
(17.2) On the same political outline map of India, three places which are major Buddhist sites have been marked as A, B and C.
Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
Note : The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 17 :
(17.1) Name any one centre of National Movement.
(17.2) Name any one territory under Babur.
(17.3) Name any three Buddhist sites.