General Instructions :
(i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
(ii) Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
(iii) Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each. Students should attempt only five questions in this section.
(iv) Question no. 10 (for 4 marks) is a value based question and compulsory.
(v) Answer to questions no. 11 to 13 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
(vi) Questions no. 14 to 16 are source based questions and have no internal choice.
(vii) Question 17 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
Answer all the questions given below :
1. Identify any two strategies evolved by Brahmanas to enforce the norms of Varna Order from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE.
2. Examine how the amara-nayaka system was a political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire.
3. ‘‘The relationship between India and Pakistan has been profoundly shaped by the legacy of partition.’’ Explain any two consequences of it.
Answer any five of the following questions :
4. Describe the distinctive features of domestic architecture of Mohenjodaro.
5. Explain the language and content of Mahabharata.
6. Examine the causes that made Al-Biruni visit India.
7. How do you think that the chronicles commissioned by the Mughal Emperors are an important source for studying Mughal history ?
8. Examine the events that took place during 1920s and 1930s which consolidated the communal identities in the country.
9. Describe the different arguments made in favour of protection of depressed classes in the Constituent Assembly.
Value Based Question (Compulsory)
10. ‘‘Gandhiji was as much a social reformer as he was a politician. He believed that in order to be worthy of freedom, Indians had to get rid of social evils such as child marriage and untouchability. Indians of one
faith had also to cultivate a genuine tolerance for Indians of another religion hence his emphasis on Hindu-Muslim harmony.’’ In the light of the above statement, highlight the values upheld by
Long Answer Questions
11. Explain the agricultural practices followed by the cultivators to increase productivity from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE.
Explain the main features of the Mauryan administration.
12. Identify the relationship between the Sufis and the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century.
Identify the relationship of the Alvars and Nayanars of Tamil Nadu with the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century.
13. ‘‘After introducing the Permanent Settlement in Bengal, the zamindars regularly failed to pay the land revenue demand.’’ Examine the causes and consequences of it.
‘‘A chain of grievances in Awadh linked the prince, taluqdars, peasants and sepoys to join hands in the revolt of 1857 against the British.’’ Examine the statement.
Source Based Questions
14. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
Buddhism in practice
This is an excerpt from the Sutta Pitaka, and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala :
In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees … by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food and wages, by tending them in sickness; by sharing delicacies with them and by granting leave at times …
In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas: by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them and supplying their worldly needs.
There are similar instructions to Sigala about how to behave with his parents, teacher and wife.
(14.1) In what ways should a master look after his servants and
(14.2) In what ways should the clansmen look after the needs of
(14.3) Explain the main aspects of Buddhist philosophy.
15. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
The Ain on land revenue collection :
Let him (the amil-guzar) not make it a practice of taking only in cash but also in kind. The latter is effected in several ways. First, kankut: in the Hindi language kan signifies grain, and kut, estimates …
If any doubts arise, the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling and the inferior, and the hesitation should be removed. Often, too, the land taken by appraisement, gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, batai, also called bhaoli, the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties. But in this case several intelligent inspectors are required; otherwise, the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly, khet-batai, when they divide the fields after they are sown. Fourthly, lang batai, after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselves, and each takes his share home and turns it to profit.
(15.1) Explain the kankut system of land revenue.
(15.2) How was the land revenue assessed in the case of batai or bhaoli ?
(15.3) Do you think that the land revenue system of the Mughals was flexible ?
16. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
A rural city ?
Read this excerpt on Madras from the Imperial Gazetteer, 1908 :
… the better European residences are built in the midst of compounds which almost attain the dignity of parks; and rice-fields frequently wind in and out between these in almost rural fashion. Even in the most thickly peopled native quarters such as Black Town and Triplicane, there is little of the crowding found in many other towns …
(16.1) Where and why were better European residences built ?
(16.2) Explain the condition of black towns.
(16.3) State the meaning of gradual urbanisation of Madras.
( Map Question)
(17.1) On the given political outline map of India (on page 11) locate and label the following appropriately :
(a) Masulipatnam a territory under British control during 1857.
(b) Goa a territory under the Mughals.
(17.2) On the same outline map of India, three places which are major Buddhist sites have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
Note : The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only in
lieu of Q. No. 17 :
(17.1) Mention any territory under the British control during 1857.
(17.2) Name any territory which was under the Mughals.
(17.3) Name any three Buddhist sites