Akali movement in Punjab was a religious issue but ended up being an important part of the freedom struggle. 

Gurudwara Problems

Gurudwara’s were under the control of the corrupt mahants. They treated temple donations as personal property and lived a life of luxury. After British annexation of Punjab some control was exercised by government nominated managers who collaborated with the mahants.

The British government supported these mahants and directed them to preach the Sikhs to stay away from the national movement. However Sikh reformers wanted to remove these mahants. Their actions had shocked the community like they had banned ghadarites and honored General Dyer.

Reform Movements

Initially the reformers met with success as the agitators formed groups to compel the mahants and managers to hand over control to the local devotees. The government supported the reformers as it didn’t want to antagonize the reformers. 

But the real test was the gurudwara at nankana. The mahants there had organized an armed band of mercenaries and had been responsible for killing peaceful Akali followers. The agitation turned violent and the gurudwara was wrested by force. Many leaders of the congress expressed solidarity with the Sikhs in this. 

The government saw that the Akali movement was increasingly being integrated with the national movement. It passed a legislation to hand over control of gurudwara to akali’s to appease the moderates but used force to repress the extremist akali’s.

Impact of the Movement

The akali’s to emboldened by the support of the nationalist joined the non cooperation movement. They even participated in the protest demonstration when Prince Charles visited India. The government arrested many of the top leadership but decided not to confront the Sikhs on this issue and released them. Thus the final victory was of the Sikhs.

The Akali movement roused political and national consciousness in Punjab. It awakened the Punjab peasantry.

Chapter Review

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!

Q1:Gurudwara movement was issue
3.freedom movement
4.both a and b


Q2:Mahants were supportive of


Q3:Akalis were
1.violent agitators
2.non violent
3.supported by congress
4.both b and c


Q4: How did the british handle the akali situation supported the mahants supported extremist akalis supported moderate akalis
4.both b and c


Q5:British supported the akalis as
1.most were british loyalists
2.british army was dominated by sikhs
3.both a and b
4.Akali movement was increasingly being integrated with the national movement