Chapter 7: EVOLUTION OF STATES

Introduction

In 1950, there was a fourfold classification of states: Part A, B, C, and D. In 1948 there was a demand for a linguistic basis to create states particularly from south India.

Commissions

The Dhar commission appointed to study this issue suggested administrative rather than linguism as basis for reorganisation. Since this was resented JVP commission [J Nehru – Sardar V Patel – P Sittaramaiya] was created and this too rejected linguistic reasons to create states.

However after the death of Potti Sriramallu on hunger strike for a separate state to Telugu speaking areas, congress created Andhra Pradesh.

The similar demand from other side led the government to appoint Fazl Ali committee that accepted linguistic basis as one of the four important points for creating states. The government accepted the report and passed the state reorganization act and 7th amendment. So 16 states and 6 UT were created.

New States added since 1950

    • Apart from those States which have merely changed their names (e.g., Madras has changed its name to Tamil Nadu; Mysore to Karnataka; United Provinces was renamed Uttar Pradesh Immediately after the adoption of the Constitution), there has been an addition of various items
    • In the list of States, the First Schedule to the Constitution, by reason of which a brief note should be given as to the new items to make the reader familiar as to their Identity.
    • The State of Andhra’ was created by the Andhra State Act, 1953, Andhra Pradesh. comprising certain areas taken out of the State of Madras, and It was renamed ‘Andhra Pradesh’ by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.
    • The Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960 split up the State of Bombay Gujarat. into two States, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
    • The State of Kerala was created by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, in place of the Part B State of Travancore-Cochin of the original constitution.
    • Nagaland was created a separate State by the State of Nagaland Act, 1962, by taking out the Naga Hills-Tuensang area out of the State of Assam.
    • By the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966, the 17th State of the Union of India was constituted by the name of Haryana, by carving out a part of the territory of the State of Punjab.
    • The State of Mysore was formed by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, out of the original Part B State of Mysore. It has been renamed, in 1973, as Karnataka.
    • Some of the Union Territories had of late, been demanding promotion to the status of a State. Of these, Himachal Pradesh became the fore-runner on the enactment of the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970, by which Himachal Pradesh was added as the 18th State in the list of States, and omitted from the list of Union Territories, in the First Schedule of the Constitution.
    • In the same manner, Manipur and Tripura were lifted up from the Manipur and status of Union Territories (original Part C States), by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
    • Meghalaya was initially created a ‘sub-State’ or ‘autonomous State’ within the State of Assam, by the Constitution (22nd Amendment) Act., 1969, by the insertion of Arts. 24J and 371A. Subsequently, it was given the full status of a State and admitted in the 1st Schedule as the 21st State, by the North- Eastern Area (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
    • As has been explained earlier, Slkkim (a Protectorate of India) was given the status of an ‘associate State’ by the Constitution (35th Amendment) Act, 1974, and thereafter added to the 1st Schedule as the 22nd State, by the Constitution (36th amendment) Act, 1975.
    • By the State of Mizoram Act, 1986, Mizoram was elevated from the status of a Union Territory to be the 23rd State in the 1st Schedule of the Constitution.
    • By a similar process, statehood was conferred on the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh, by enacting the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986.
    • Goa was separated from Daman and Diu and made a State by the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987.
    • Chhatisgarh was carved out of the tenitories of the Madhya Pradesh by the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000.
    • Initially Uttaranchal was created out of the territories of the Uttar Pradesh by the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000. It was renamed as Uttarakhand by the Uttaranchal (Alteration of Name) Act, 2006.
  • Jharkhand was created by carving out a part of the territories of the Bihar by the Bihar Reorganisation Act. 2000.

 

Quiz

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!


Q1:The first classification of states had how many groups?
1
2
3
4

Q2:Demand for creation of states on linguistic lines came first from?
1.North India
2.South India
3.West India
4.North East

Q3:First commission appointed to study State reorganization was
1.Dhar
2.SVP
3.Faizal
4.GVK Rao

Q4:First state to be created on linguistic lines
1.Andhra pradesh
2.Tamil nadu
3.Maharashtra
4.J&K

Q5:Which commission accepted the demand for state reorganization on linguistic basis
1.Dhar
2.Faizal ali
3.JVP
4.none