Government of India has notified nearly 57000 sq km area of the Western ghats as eco sensitive zone. The states under which this land is present are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Eco sensitive zones are declared under the Environment Protection Act.
The mining, quarrying, sand mining projects, thermal power plants and building and construction projects shall be banned under this notification. These industries shall be classified as “Red” category industries. “Orange” category industry shall be strictly regulated. The stakeholders have been given 60 days to make suggestions. After which the notification shall come into force.
However criticisms have been received against the process. The earlier Madhav Gadgil committee had recommended that the entire area be declared eco sensitive. This wasn’t accepted an the Kasturirangan committee declared around 37% of the area as eco sensitive.
The government of Kerala had objected to a large portion being declared eco sensitive as this would have affected livelihoods. Hence the final notification has taken the state government’s views into consideration and allowed for a smaller area to be declared eco sensitive.
Convention is a framework to be respected by all signatories by enacting national legislation’s. Protocol is an international agreement to support a convention that is linked to a convention but adds new commitments to it.
The developed countries are placed in Annex I and they have the heaviest responsibility of fighting climate change by reducing emissions. The countries of O.E.C.D and 12 transition nations were expected to reduce emissions compulsorily. These nations were also expected to give grants and loans and transfer technology to less advanced countries. The financial support is managed by Global Environment Facility.
Developing countries like India, china were non annex countries with no binding targets.
Annex- II a subgroup of annex-i countries which would provide funding to poor countries.
Annex- A had the 6 G.H.G’s like CO2, Methane, CFC, Sulphur Hexafluoride, Perfluorocarbons, and Nitrous Oxide.
Annex-B was the targets for annex-i countries.
Fig 2: Earth Summit
It was created by the UN general assembly at the UN conference on human environment, Stockholm in 1972. It is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.
Its main mandate is to coordinate development of environment policy for keeping global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and international community for action.
The divisions of U.N.E.P are:
E.I.A is a tool that ensures that the project is environmentally sound and within the capacity of the ecosystem to assimilate and regenerate. It improves decision making by reducing the adverse impact of development projects.
E.I.A has now become mandatory for 29 development projects with investment of Rs. 50 Crores or more under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.
Step 1: the environment appraisal committees are created for projects like nuclear, thermal, mining, industry, river valley, and infrastructure development. Once an application is received it is sent to E.A.C for approval or rejection recommendation. Once the recommendations are obtained the ministry of environment makes final decision in 90 days.
Step 2: a post clearance monitoring is done to check adequacy of safeguards and make mid course corrections if needed.
Solved Question Papers
Q.The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the (UPSC CSAT 2015)
Ans . C
Q1:SPCB under the Water Act have powers to
1.grant or deny consent to discharge in factories.
2.S.P.C.B’s could enact effluent standards for factories.
3.The S.P.C.B had the power to inspect factory premises and conduct analysis of samples
Q2:Air [prevention and control of pollution] act, 1981 empowers SPCB too
1.control air pollution and improve quality of air
2.The S.P.C.B had the power to inspect factory premises and conduct analysis of samples
3.The industries operating within designated areas must obtain consent or permit from the S.P.C.B.
Q3:Ecologically Sensitive zones can be declared under
3.Environment Protection Act
4.Wildlife protection Act
Q4:National parks can be established under
1.Wildlife protection Act
2.Environment Protection Act
Q5:State government can declare a forest as protected and prohibit any commercial exploitation there under which Act?
1.Environment Protection Act
2.Wildlife protection Act
3.Forest Conservation Act