After the green revolution Indian agriculture has become cereal based, region centric, input intensive and consumed higher land, water, fertilizers. A rainbow revolution is needed to ensure that pulses, fruits and vegetables too are given importance.
Per capita availability of water and arable land in India has been on the decline steadily. India needs to move to more from less strategy.
Indian agriculture is focused on wheat and rice intensive where both are grown on most fertile land. They also consume most of the resources like water, M.S.P., fertilizers but have very low yields.
Unlike other countries the quantity of water used for a unit of crop is higher in India. Also India exports water intensive crops unlike china that imports water intensive crops.
Solution could be use of drip irrigation to save water and fertilizer. The key impediment to these are the high cost of initial installation and skill needed for maintenance.
When planting crops the farmers could use an option contract to safeguard his price of selling to make adequate returns. But this facility is available to only a few farmers. The government thus uses M.S.P to protect farmers interest.
Problem with M.S.P policy is that it is high for wheat and rice and low for pulses thus discouraging production of pulses which have to be imported. The farmers who know about M.S.P vary from state to state and crop to crop.
Thus in reality very few know about M.S.P. M.S.P is also not taking into account negative externalities like use of chemical fertilizers, destructive practices and overuse of groundwater. This leads to future problems and have to be accounted.
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Q1:Rainbow revolution refers to
Q2:Open ended procurement is practised by
Q3:Method of saving the farmer from price shocks is
Q4:Agriculture universities are suffering from
Q5:National agriculture market will mean