CONSERVATION PROJECTS

 

Introduction

Project Tiger

It was launched for conservation of Indian Tiger whose population had reduced from 40000 in 1900 to a mere 1800 by 1972. It was a centrally sponsored scheme to protect the species and its habitat as a natural heritage for benefit of the people. It also aimed to harmonize the right of tribals in and around such areas.  Tiger reserves were notified for protection of tiger and its prey. A statutory body National Tiger Conservation Authority headed by PM would be setup to monitor these reserves. State government would notify such reserves on recommendation of this body.

Tiger reserves would have a core and buffer area. Core area would remain inviolate for any human interference. The buffer areas would see co-existence of human activity and habitat protection. The NTCA and National board of Wildlife would recommend and approve the denotification or alteration of Tiger reserves after which the state governments could proceed.

Functions of N.T.C.A:

  1. Approve tiger conservation plan of state governments.
  2. Disallow ecologically unsustainable activities in tiger reserves.
  3. Monitor tiger conservation activities, capacity building measures  and regulate tourism in core and buffer areas.
  4. Allow diversion of land for economic activities after approval of National board of Wildlife.

Project Elephant

 

 

It was launched as a central sponsored scheme in 1992 for protection of elephants and their habitat. States were given financial assistance in their efforts of conservation and capacity building of staff.Protection of elephant corridors, prevent man animal conflict, stop poaching , protect tamed elephants are objectives of this project.

Elephant corridors are areas that connect habitats of elephant colonies. These are located in India everywhere except Western regions. North east has highest numbers but South India has least disturbed corridors. Orissa, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand have highest mineral wealth and elephant corridors which means high man animal conflict. Apart from mining ivory hunting is another serious problem. “Gajah” is the mascot of the movement.

Project One Horned Rhino

Assam forest department and Bodo council are implementing Indian rhino vision 2020 for increasing rhino population to 3000 by 2020 and to distribute them over 7 protected areas for conservation.

Project Snow Leopard

This was launched in 2009 for protection of snow leopard and its habitat from threats due to degradation. The participation of local communities and use of scientific methodology was seen as important. The high altitude ecosystem is unique with its diversity.

Project Sea turtle

Ministry of environment and forest and UNDP started this program currently implemented by Wildlife institute of India. Aim is conservation of egg hatching sites of olive ridley turtles in all 10 coastal states of India especially Orissa.

Project Crocodile

This project brought back the crocodiles from extinction onto a path of recovery. The gharial, salt water crocodile and mugger are focus of this scheme. Crocodile conservation and breeding center, Hyderabad is involved in this and one aim is to sensitize local populations for effective conservation.

Project Hangal

Kashmir stag or hangal is the state animal of J&K. The habitat destruction had brought this animal on brink of extinction but the State government with support of IUCN and WWF prepared a project for protection of these animals.

Project Ganges River Dolphin

The national aquatic animal of India was threatened due to fishing or poaching for oil. In addition to this building of barrages and dams are also separating the population. Various organizations including WWF-India are involved in its conservation and re-introduction.

Note: Vultures are affected by consumption of diclofenac a drug which can’t be digested by them. This causes kidney failure and death. Vulture Safety zones were setup in India to provide diclofenac free carcass for vultures. In punjab and maharashtra, Vulture restaurants were setup for the same purpose.

Q. The term M-STRIPES’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. Captive breeding of Wild Fauna

    1. Maintenance of Tiger Reserves

    1. Indigenous Satellite Navigation System

    1. Security of National Highways

Ans . B

  1. National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is planning to implement a new computerized tiger monitoring protocol in all tiger reserves of the country known as Monitoring System for Tiger, Intensive Patrolling and Ecological Status (MSTrIPES).

Q. Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites ? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. Corbett National Park

    1. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary

    1. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary

    1. Sariska National Park

Ans . B

Q. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply ? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. It enjoys the same level of protection as the tiger.

    1. It no longer exists in the wild, a few individuals are under captive protection; and now it is impossible to prevent its extinction.

    1. It is endemic to a particular region of India.

    1. Both (b) and (c) stated above are correct in this context.

Ans . A

Q. According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law?
1. Gharial
2. Indian wild ass
3. Wild buffalo
Select the correct answer using the code given below:(UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 only

    1. 2 and 3 only

    1. 1 and 3 only

    1. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . D

  1. schedule 5 vermin- crow, fruitbat, mice and rat can be killed.

Q. If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. Bhitarkanika Mangroves

    1. Chambal River

    1. Pulicat Lake

    1. Deepor Beel

Ans . B

  1. Gharials are river dwelling fish-eaters and their only viable population is in the Chambal Sanctuary

Q. From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

    1. Nallamala Forest

    1. Nagarhole National Park

    1. Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve

Ans . B

Q. Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC):
1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 only

    1. 2 only

    1. Both 1 and 2

    1. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans . B

  1. TRAFFIC is joint program of WWF and IUCN

Q. Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?
1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected.
2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.
3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 only

    1. 2 and 3 only

    1. 1 and 3 only

    1. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . C

  1. No specific reference that mentions linkage between butterfly population vs fungus infection.

Q. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. Measuring oxygen levels in blood

    1. Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems

    1. Pollution assay in aquatic ecosystems

    1. Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions

Ans . C

  1. The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water, is called Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). The amount of BOD in the water is a measure of the amount of organic material in the water, in terms of how much oxygen will be required to break it down biologically. Clean water would have BOD value of less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.

Q. In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique?
1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.
2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms.
3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 only

    1. 2 and 3 only

    1. 1 and 3 only

    1. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . C

  1. Disadvantages of bioremediation – not all compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete biodegradation, and bioremediation often takes longer time than other treatment processes.

Q. In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration?
1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams
2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
3. Subterranean deep saline formations
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 and 2 only

    1. 3 only

    1. 1 and 3 only

    1. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . D

  1. Carbon sequestration may be carried out by pumping carbon into carbon sinks of two types: Natural sinks- ocean, forest, soil etc. Artificial sink- depleted oil reserve, unminable mines

  2. Deep Saline Formations infact have highest capacity for this.

Q. It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry?
1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.
2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed.
3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:(UPSC CSAT 2017)

    1. 1 and 2 only

    1. 2 and 3 only

    1. 3 only

    1. 1, 2 and 3

Ans . B

  1. use of genetically modified organisms in production systems could affect social acceptability

  2. Open Algal ponds will attract insect larvae invasion and affect predator-prey balance. This is ecological concern

Q. Which of the following has/have been accorded ‘Geographical Indication’ status?
1. Banaras Brocades and Sarees
2. Rajasthani Daal-Bati-Churma
3. Tirupathi Laddu
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2015)

    • 1 only

    • 2 and 3 only

    • 1 only 3 only

    • 1, 2 and 3

Ans . C

Q.Consider the following pairs of Wetlands and Confluence of rivers:
1. Harike Wetlands -> Beas and Satluj/Sutlej
2. Keoladeo Ghana National Park -> Banas and Chambal
3. Kolleru Lake – > Confluence of Musi and Krishna
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched? (UPSC CSAT 2014)

    • 1 only

    • 2 and 3 only

    • 1 and 3 only

    • 1, 2 and 3

Ans .D

  1. Kolleru Lake – confluence of Godavari and Krishna

  2. Keoladeo Ghana National Park – It is formed by inundation of Gambira and Banganga rivers

Q.Which of the following have coral reefs?
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Mannar
Sunderbans
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2014)

    • 1, 2 and 3 only

    • 2 and 4 only

    • 1 and 3 only

    • 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans . A

  1. Major reef formations in Indian seas occur in the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay , Gulf of Kutch, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep.

Chapter Review

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!

Q1:Tiger reserves are monitored by
1.NTCA
2.Wildlife crime control bureau
3.animal welfare board
4.none

Q2:Functions of N.T.C.A
1.Approve tiger conservation plan of state governments.
2.Disallow ecologically unsustainable activities in tiger reserves.
3.Monitor tiger conservation activities, capacity building measures and regulate tourism in core and buffer areas.
4.All

Q3:Elephant corridors are
1.places where elephants are found
2.elephant hospital
3.connect habitats of elephant colonies
4.none

Q4:Project Hangal is for conservation of
1.kashmir fox
2.kashmir stag
3.tibetan wild ass
4.red panda

Q5:national aquatic animal of India is
1.pomfret
2.dolphin
3.whale
4.shark