BHAGAT SINGH AND THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT

Introduction

As discussed the revolution of the bomb was just during the end of the Bengal partition movement. Such groups were suppressed during the world war but under the amnesty scheme were released. They actively participated in the non cooperation movement but the sudden withdrawal of the movement shattered their hopes.

These people started feeling disillusioned by the tactics of the national leadership of non violence. They had no interest in the council politics of the swarajist or the undramatic work by the no changers. They resorted to violence as they felt it was the only way of ensuring freedom.

Revolution of the Bomb

Under Ramprasad Bismil The Hindustan republican army was formed to overthrow colonial rule using force. Before the armed struggle, propaganda had to be spread and men had to be recruited, trained and armed. This needed funds. 

Kakori train robbery was done but the government’s response was harsh and Bismil was hanged with others. Several other leaders were sentenced to long imprisonments. Only Chandrasekhar azad remained at large. Bhagat Singh and others met at Pherozshah kotla ground in Delhi and organized the H.R.A under Chandrasekhar azad’s leadership and renamed it Hindustan socialist republican army.

The HRSA moved away from individual assassinations and towards the mass movements. But the death of Sher e Punjab Lala Lajpat Rai,  by brutal lathi charge enraged them. Bhagat Singh and others assassinated the person responsible Deputy Superintendent Saunders. The HRSA wanted the masses to know about their changed objectives and the need for revolution. 

Bhagat Singh and Dutt were asked to throw bombs in the central legislative assembly where the Public safety bill was being passed. The aim wasn’t to kill but to make the deaf hear. The subsequent trial could be used to spread the propaganda and arouse the public opinion. This plan failed as due to betrayal by a fellow HRSA member the police found about the involvement of Bhagat Singh in the killing of DSP Saunders. 

Bhagat Singh and others were also tried for the Lahore conspiracy case [killing of Saunders] and sentenced to death. During the trial their fearless attitude was reported by the newspapers and Bhagat Singh became a household name. The news of his death was a day of mourning by all.

Gandhiji too tried to convince the viceroy for leniency to these youths but failed. This failure was seen by some as deliberate attempt to please the british by Gandhiji inorder to get concessions for the congress. In many places black flags were shown against Gandhiji.

Revolutionary movement in South

The Bengal branch of revolutionaries was also not behind. This group had links with the congress. Because of the congress it got access to the vast masses and the congress got links to grassroots groups. They aided the swarajist in their work. After the death of CR Das the congress leadership in Bengal got divided into two groups one led by SC Bose and other by JM Sengupta.

The Yugantar joined forces with the first and Anushilan with the second. The revolutionary groups then stagnated as the rivalries between Yugantar and Anushilan were constant. But younger groups developed which had fraternal relations with both Yugantar and Anushilan. Chittagong group was one such. It was under the leadership of Surya Sen. It organized a group raid on the armoury and several other raids.

The Bengal revolutionaries went ahead of northern revolutionaries as they organized collective acts on colonial rule but the aim was same to inspire youth and undermine and demoralize the bureaucracy.

Bhagat Singh:

Son of Ajit Singh was born in 1907. He was a voracious reader and most well read of political leaders of that time. He read all books on revolution, socialism, freedom struggles. He also established many studies circles for political discussions. He never believed in terrorism or individual heroism. His faith in Marxism which meant he believed in power of mass movements.

He was secular and was completely against communalism. He was an atheist.

Fallout of the Movement

The main drawbacks of revolutionaries were that they couldn’t start mass movement. They in fact had lost touch with the masses. They couldn’t politically activate them nor could they move them into political actions.

However their contribution to the national movement was great. They were fierce patriots. They helped develop a sense of sacrifice in the people.

Chapter Review

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Q1:Revolutionary movement rose because
1.sudden withdrawal of non cooperation movement
2.lack of faith in work of no changers and pro changers
3.both a and b
4.inspiration from west

ANS.3

Q2:The Hindustan republican army was formed under leadership of
1.ramprasad bismil
2.bhagat singh
3.batukeshwar dutt
4.chandrasekhar azad

ANS.1

Q3:Bhagat Singh and Dutt were asked to throw bombs in the central legislative assembly where the ____ bill was being passed
1.Public safety
2.meerut conspiracy
3.Government of India
4.Indian council

ANS.1

Q4: Athiest, non believer in terrorism or communalism, voracious reader – These describe which leader
1.MK Gandhi
2.J Nehru
3.Sardar Patel
4.Bhagat singh

ANS.4

Q5:Failure of the revolutionaires was due to
1.they couldn’t start mass movement
2.They couldn’t politically activate them nor could they move them into political actions.
3.They in fact had lost touch with the masses.
4.all

ANS.4