ARTICLES

1.The words 'a' or 'an' and 'the' are called Articles. They come before nouns

2.There are two Articles - a (or an) and the.

3.'A' or 'an' is called the Indefinite Article, because it usually leaves indefinite the person or thing spoken of; E.g: "A doctor; that is, any doctor."

4."The" is called the Definite Article, because it normally points out some particular person or thing;

5.The choice between 'a' and 'an' is determined by sound. Before a word beginning with a vowel sound 'an' is used; as, An ass, an enemy, an ink-pad, an orange, an umbrella, an hour, an honest man. An heir.

6.It will be noticed that the words hour, honest, heir begin with a vowel sound, as the initial consonant h is not pronounced




Find the Article to be used:

1.____ book you want is out of print. (Ans: The)

2.Let's go to ___ park. (Ans: The)

3.____ cow is a useful animal. (Ans: The)

4.The banyan is ____ kind of fig tree. (Ans: a)

5.__ woman is more sensitive than ___ man. (Ans: a)

6.____ Mr. Roy whom you met last night is my uncle. (Ans: a)

7.___ great Caesar : ___ immortal Shakespeare. (Ans: a)

___ darkest cloud has ___ silver lining(Ans: The , a)

This is ___ best book of elementary chemistry. (Ans: The)

8.___ poor are always with us. (Ans: The)

9.Twelve inches make ___ foot. (Ans: a)

10.Not __ word was said. (Ans: a)

11.___ bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (Ans: a)

12.One evening ___ beggar came to my door.(Ans: a)

13.___ pupil should obey his teacher. (Ans: a)

14.___ Daniel comes to judgement! (Ans: a)



PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1.Definition: A word that is thus used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun

2.I am young.

3.We are young.

34.You are young.

5.They are young.

6.He (she, it) is young

7.I, we, you, he, (she, it), they are called Personal Pronouns because they stand for the three persons like (i) the person speaking, (ii) the person spoken to , (iii) the person spoken of.

Rules while deciding use of pronouns

1.If the Collective Noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the Pronoun standing for it must be of the Plural Number

a)The jury were divided in their opinions.

b)The committee decided the matter without leaving their seats.

2.When two or more Singular Nouns are joined by and, the Pronoun used for them must be Plural

a)Rama and Had work hard. They are praised by their teacher.

b)Both Sita and Savitri are tired; they have gone home.

3.When two Singular Nouns joined by and refer to the same person or thing, the Pronoun used must of course be Singular

a)The Secretary and Treasurer is negligent of his duty.

4.When two Singular Nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every, the Pronoun must be Singular

a)Every soldier and every sailor was in his place.

5.When two or more Singular Nouns are joined by or or either...or, neither... nor, the Pronoun is generally Singular

a)Rama or Hari must lend his hand

b)Either Sita or Amina forgot to take her parasol.

c)Neither Abdul nor Karim has done his lesson.

6.When a Plural Noun and a Singular Noun are joined by or or nor, the Pronoun must be in the Plural

a)Either the manager or his assistants failed in their duty

7.When a pronoun refers to more than one noun or pronoun of different persons, it must be of the first person plural in preference to the third

a)You and I have done our duty.

b)You and Hari have idled away your time



REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS

When -self is added to my, your, him, her, it, and -selves to our, your, them, we get what are called Compound Personal Pronouns

They are called Reflexive Pronouns when the action done by the subject turns back (reflects) upon the subject

1.I hurt myself.

2.We hurt ourselves.

3.You will hurt yourself.

4.You hurt yourselves.

5.He hurt himself.

6.She hurt herself.

7.They hurt themselves.

8.The horse hurt itself.

Compound Personal Pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis, and are therefore called Emphatic Pronouns.

1.I will do it myself.

2.I myself saw him do it.

3.We will see to it ourselves.

4.You yourself can best explain.

5.He himself said so.

6.She herself says so

7.We saw the Prime Minister himself.

8.The town itself is not very large.

9.They themselves admitted their guilt.




Solved Exercises

Questions: Tell which Pronouns in the following sentences are Reflexive and which Emphatic Answers
I will go myself. myself- emphatic
Rama has hurt himself. himself - reflexive
We often deceive ourselves. ourselves - reflexive
I myself heard the remark. myself - emphatic
You express yourself very imperfectly. yourself - reflexive



RELATIVE PRONOUNS

1.I met Hari who had just returned.

2.I have found the pen which I lost.

3.Here is the book that you lent me.

Analysis of the Relative Pronouns:

1.The word who is used instead of the noun Hari. It, therefore, does the work of a Pronoun

2.The word who joins or connects two statements. It, therefore, does the work of a Conjunction.

3.The word who, therefore, does double work-the work of a Pronoun and also the work of a Conjunction. Therefore, it might be mistaken as a Conjunctive Pronoun. It is, however, called a Relative Pronoun because it refers or relates (Le., carries us back) to some noun going before (here, the noun Hari), which is called its Antecedent.

Forms of the Relative Pronouns:

1.The Relative Pronoun who has different forms for Accusative and Genitive. Singular and Plural. Forms are the same for singular and plural, masculine and feminine.

a)Nominative -- who

b)Genitive -- whose

c)Accusative -- whom/who (who replaces whom in informal English.)

2.The Relative Pronoun which has the same form for the Nominative and Accusative cases.

a)This is the house which belongs to my uncle.

b)The house which my uncle built cost him Rs. 3,50,000

3.The Relative Pronoun which has no Genitive Case, but whose is used as a substitute for 'of which'; as

a)A triangle whose three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle.



Fill in the blanks with suitable relative pronouns:

Question Answer
We always like boys --- speak the truth. who or that
We saw the dog --- worried the cat. that or which
He ---, does his best shall be praised. who or that
I know ---. you mean
She has gone to Chennai, --- is her birthplace. what
I have seen the bird --- you describe which



Join sentences using a connective:

Question Answer
I know a man. The man has been to Iceland. I know a man who(that) has been to Iceland.
The thief stole the watch. The thief was punished. The thief who(that) stole the watch was punished.
Show the road. The road leads to Delhi. Show the road that (which) leads to Delhi.
Here is the doctor. The doctor cured me of malaria. Here is the doctor who (that) cured me of malaria



Split each of the following sentences into two:-

Questions Answer
The boys gave a loud shout, which was heard across the river. The boys gave a loud shout. The shout was heard across the river.
Bring me the book that is on the table. Bring me the book . It is on the table.
It was a wretched hut in which she lived. It was a wretched hut. She lived in it.
The boy who fell off his bicycle has hurt his leg. The boy who fell off his bicycle. He has hurt his leg.